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In large oil immersed transformers, we can find a cylindrical object installed in the pipe connecting the conservator to the main tank. This cylindrical object, that looks like a solenoid valve is called Buchholz relay. It is a type of oil activated relays. It can be found in all oil immersed transformers rated higher than 500kva. 
Before getting into the topic, we have to keep two points in mind.

1. Conventional Current flow. (The way Current is said to flow historically)
2. ‎Actual current flow. (The way Current actually flows).

By definition, current is the flow of charges, basically electrons. It is said to flow from a point of higher potential to lower potential.

What is Kilowatt?

Kilowatt is the unit of power. It is the product of voltage, ampere and power factor. It is also called as real power.

One kilowatt(kW) is equal to thousand watts(W).
Kilovolt ampere to kilowatts

 What is kilo-volt ampere?

Kilo volt-ampere is the unit of apparent power. It is independent of power factor. 

One kilovolt-amp(kVA) is equal to thousand volt-amp(VA).

How to convert kilo-volt-ampere to kilowatt?

To convert kilo-volt-ampere to kilowatt, multiply the KVA to the power factor of the circuit.

kW = KVA X P.F(Power factor)

Use the following tool to convert kVA to kW:



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KVA TO KW CONVERTER





Enter Kilovolts Ampere value







Enter Power Factor (P.F.)







Kilowatt value











How to use the tool:

1. Input the kVA value.
2. Input the power factor.
3. Click on calculate button.
4. Converted value will be displayed in kW.
5. Check the power factor if "Incorrect power factor is displayed".




Related Searches:
1. How to convert kVA to kW?
2. kVA to kW converter online.
3. Online kVA converter.

PLC - Programmable Logic Controller

PLC
Schneider Modicon
Programmable logic controllers are electronic devices used to control a process. It consists of CPU; Input and output devices, power supply, communication and redundancy units. PLCs are preprogrammed based on their application and put into operation. A PLC accepts inputs from the field, process the input based on the programming done and outputs the commands to the field equipment. It can also accept commands from the plant operators through SCADA and give commands to the field equipment. The features of PLCs vary from one manufacturer to the other but the basic architecture remains the same.

AC motor stall
Induction motor Torque-Speed Characteristics
Stalling is a condition at which a motor stops rotating. This condition occurs when the torque required by the load is more than the maximum torque (Breakdown torque) that can be generated by the motor. At this condition, the motor drains the maximum current and the speed comes zero.
DC Motor Torque speed Characteristics
Every motor is designed to spin a particular amount of load. When the load is further increased above its overload region, the speed of the motor gradually reduces and the motor stalls. The Slip during stalling of a motor is 100%. Since the motor is not rotating, there will be no back EMF and so the power consumption will be the maximum. 

Reasons for stalling of motors:

1. Electrical: Missing out of one phase (two phasing) or single phasing of input supply
2. Mechanical: Rotor jam, overload or load unable to move.

Stall Current

Stall current is the current drawn by the motor at locked rotor condition. It is the highest current a motor can draw and is proportional to its rotor resistance. If stall current is drawn by a motor for a longer time, motor gets overheated causing damage of winding.

Stall torque 

Stall torque is the load torque at which the motor shaft stops rotating. It is also known as locked rotor torque.

Related Searches

Induction Motor Stalling
Motor Stall Protection
Motor Stall Fault
Motor Stall Current
Safe Stall Time Of Motor
Motor Stall Torque Calculation
Maximum Continuous Stall Torque
Locked Rotor Protection Relay


As the name indicates, starters are used to start or stop a motor. It consists of an electromechanical switch and protection devices (overload and/or short-circuit protection).

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