In large oil immersed transformers, we can find a cylindrical object installed in the pipe connecting the conservator to the main tank. This cylindrical object, that looks like a solenoid valve is called Buchholz relay. It is a type of oil activated relays. It can be found in all oil immersed transformers rated higher than 500kva.
Before getting into the topic, we have to keep two points in mind.
1. Conventional Current flow. (The way Current is said to flow historically)
2. Actual current flow. (The way Current actually flows).
By definition, current is the flow of charges, basically electrons. It is said to flow from a point of higher potential to lower potential.
1. Conventional Current flow. (The way Current is said to flow historically)
2. Actual current flow. (The way Current actually flows).
By definition, current is the flow of charges, basically electrons. It is said to flow from a point of higher potential to lower potential.
What is Kilowatt?
Kilowatt is the unit of power. It is the product of voltage, ampere and power factor. It is also called as real power.
Kilo voltampere is the unit of apparent power. It is independent of power factor.
One kilovoltamp(kVA) is equal to thousand voltamp(VA).
How to convert kilovoltampere to kilowatt?
To convert kilovoltampere to kilowatt, multiply the KVA to the power factor of the circuit.
kW = KVA X P.F(Power factor)
Use the following tool to convert kVA to kW:
How to use the tool:
1. Input the kVA value.
2. Input the power factor.
3. Click on calculate button.
4. Converted value will be displayed in kW.
5. Check the power factor if "Incorrect power factor is displayed".
Related Searches:
1. How to convert kVA to kW?
2. kVA to kW converter online.
3. Online kVA converter.
PLC  Programmable Logic Controller
Schneider Modicon 
Programmable logic controllers are electronic devices used to control a process. It consists of CPU; Input and output devices, power supply, communication and redundancy units. PLCs are preprogrammed based on their application and put into operation. A PLC accepts inputs from the field, process the input based on the programming done and outputs the commands to the field equipment. It can also accept commands from the plant operators through SCADA and give commands to the field equipment. The features of PLCs vary from one manufacturer to the other but the basic architecture remains the same.
Induction motor TorqueSpeed Characteristics 
DC Motor Torque speed Characteristics 
Reasons for stalling of motors:
1. Electrical: Missing out of one phase (two phasing) or single phasing of input supply
2. Mechanical: Rotor jam, overload or load unable to move.
Stall Current
Stall current is the current drawn by the motor at locked rotor condition. It is the highest current a motor can draw and is proportional to its rotor resistance. If stall current is drawn by a motor for a longer time, motor gets overheated causing damage of winding.
Stall torque
Stall torque is the load torque at which the motor shaft stops rotating. It is also known as locked rotor torque.
Related Searches
• Induction Motor Stalling
• Motor Stall Protection
• Motor Stall Fault
• Motor Stall Current
• Safe Stall Time Of Motor
• Motor Stall Torque Calculation
• Maximum Continuous Stall Torque
• Locked Rotor Protection Relay
Horsepower and kilowatt are two different units of measuring power. Watts is the SI unit of power. It is a welldefined and normally used unit.
This is a simple tool to instantaneously convert kilowatt into horsepower.
1 hp(I) = 745.699872 W = 0.745699872 kW
Therefore,
P(kW) = 0.745699872 ⋅ P(hp)
1 hp(E) = 746 W = 0.746 kW
Therefore,
P(kW) = 0.746 ⋅ P(hp)
1 hp(M) = 735.49875 W = 0.73549875 kW
Therefore,
P(kW) = 0.73549875 ⋅ P(hp)
The following are few standard KW to HP conversions
This is a simple tool to instantaneously convert kilowatt into horsepower.
How to convert kilowatts into horsepower?
Mechanic / Hydraulic horsepower to kilowatts
One mechanic or hydraulic horsepower is equal to 0.745699872 kilowatts:1 hp(I) = 745.699872 W = 0.745699872 kW
Therefore,
P(kW) = 0.745699872 ⋅ P(hp)
Electrical horsepower to kilowatts
One electrical horsepower is equal to 0.746 kilowatts:1 hp(E) = 746 W = 0.746 kW
Therefore,
P(kW) = 0.746 ⋅ P(hp)
Metric horsepower to kilowatts
One metric horsepower is equal to 0.73549875 kilowatts:1 hp(M) = 735.49875 W = 0.73549875 kW
Therefore,
P(kW) = 0.73549875 ⋅ P(hp)
Horsepower to kilowatts Convertor
Kilowatt
(KW)

Mechanic
horsepower
(hp(I)) 
Electric
horsepower (hp(E))

Metric
horsepower (hp(M))

0.1KW

0.080HP

0.080HP

0.082HP

0.1KW

0.121HP

0.121HP

0.122HP

0.1KW

0.161HP

0.161HP

0.163HP

0.2KW

0.241HP

0.241HP

0.245HP

0.3KW

0.335HP

0.335HP

0.340HP

0.4KW

0.496HP

0.496HP

0.503HP

0.6KW

0.738HP

0.737HP

0.748HP

0.8KW

1.006HP

1.005HP

1.020HP

1.0KW

1.341HP

1.340HP

1.360HP

1.1KW

1.475HP

1.475HP

1.496HP

1.5KW

2.012HP

2.011HP

2.039HP

2.0KW

2.682HP

2.681HP

2.719HP

2.2KW

2.950HP

2.949HP

2.991HP

3.0KW

4.023HP

4.021HP

4.079HP

4.0KW

5.364HP

5.362HP

5.438HP

5.5KW

7.376HP

7.373HP

7.478HP

7.5KW

10.058HP

10.054HP

10.197HP

11.0KW

14.751HP

14.745HP

14.956HP

15.0KW

20.115HP

20.107HP

20.394HP

18.5KW

24.809HP

24.799HP

25.153HP

22.0KW

29.502HP

29.491HP

29.912HP

30.0KW

40.231HP

40.214HP

40.789HP

37.0KW

49.618HP

49.598HP

50.306HP

45.0KW

60.346HP

60.322HP

61.183HP

55.0KW

73.756HP

73.727HP

74.779HP

75.0KW

100.577HP

100.536HP

101.972HP

90.0KW

120.692HP

120.643HP

122.366HP

110.0KW

147.512HP

147.453HP

149.558HP

132.0KW

177.015HP

176.944HP

179.470HP

160.0KW

214.564HP

214.477HP

217.540HP

200.0KW

268.204HP

268.097HP

271.924HP

250.0KW

335.256HP

335.121HP

339.906HP

315.0KW

422.422HP

422.252HP

428.281HP

355.0KW

476.063HP

475.871HP

482.666HP

400.0KW

536.409HP

536.193HP

543.849HP

500.0KW

670.511HP

670.242HP

679.811HP

560.0KW

750.972HP

750.670HP

761.388HP

630.0KW

844.844HP

844.504HP

856.562HP

710.0KW

952.126HP

951.743HP

965.332HP

800.0KW

1072.818HP

1072.386HP

1087.698HP

900.0KW

1206.920HP

1206.435HP

1223.660HP

1000.0KW

1341.022HP

1340.483HP

1359.622HP

Voltage division rule
Voltage division rule is one of the basic rules of circuit analysis. It is applicable to all series circuits and combination circuits. Series circuit always acts as a Voltage divider. In a series circuit, the same current flows through each resistance. Hence the voltage drops across each resistor are proportional to their ohmic value.